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Georgios Paraskevopoulos

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3/1/2009 4:59:53 AM


A continuous contribution for the global human heritage

The Spirit Is The Treasure of God
A Foundation Of Everything To Come.

GREECE -Birth of Civilization


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A quick review -Greece trhought the ages

Musei Vaticani “Zeus of Otricoli”.
Marble, Roman copy after a Greek original from the 4th century.
From the villa of Cassius near Tivoli, 1774
Museo Pio-Clementino, Sala Rotunda

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Hail Zeus God of All
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Georgios Paraskevopoulos

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3/1/2009 5:00:33 AM


The history of Greece can be traced back to Stone Age hunters. Later came early farmers and the civilizations of the Minoan and Mycenaean kings. This was followed by a period of wars and invasions, known as the Dark Ages. In about 1100 BC, a people called the Dorians invaded from the north and spread down the west coast. In the period from 500-336 BC Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside.


There were only a few historians in the time of Ancient Greece. Three major ancient historians were able to record their time of Ancient Greek history, that includes Herodotus, known as the 'Father of History' who traveled to many ancient historic sites at the time, Thucidides and Xenophon.

Most other forms of History knowledge and accountability of the ancient Greeks we know is because of temples, sculpture, pottery, artifacts and other archaeological findings.


NEOLITHIC Period (6000 - 2900 BC)


According to historians and archeological findings, the Neolithic Age in Greece lasted from 6800 to 3200 BC. The most domesticated settlements were in Near East of Greece. They traveled mainly due to overpopulation. These people introduced pottery and animal husbandry in Greece. They may as well have traveled via the route of Black sea into Thrace, which then further leads to Macedonia, Thessaly, Boeotia etc.




The Greek Bronze Age or the Early Helladic Era started around 2800 BC and lasted till 1050 BC in Crete while in the Aegean islands it started in 3000 BC. The Bronze Age in Greece is divided into periods such as Helladic I, II. The information that is available today on the Bronze Age in Greece is from the architecture, burial styles and lifestyle. The colonies were made of 300 to 1000 people.


MINOAN AGE (2000-1400 BC)

Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. It is divided into three periods: the early Minoan period (c.3000-2200 B.C.), the Middle Minoan period (c.2200-1500 B.C.) and the Late Minoan period (c.1500-1000 B.C.).



MYCENAEAN AGE (1600 - 1100 BC)


This is a period of high cultural achievement, forming the backdrop and basis for subsequent myths of the heroes. It was named for the kingdom of Mycenae and the archaeological site where fabulous works in gold were unearthed. The Mycenaean Age was cut short by widespread destruction ushering in the Greek Dark Age.


TROJAN WAR  1194-1184 BC

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THE DARK AGES (1100 - 800 BC)


This is the period between the fall of the Mycenean civilizations and the re-adoption of writing in the eight or seventh century BC. After the Trojan Wars the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil war, the country was weak and a tribe called the Dorians took over. Some speculate that Dorian invaders from the north with iron weapons laid waste the Mycenaean culture. Others look to internal dissent, uprising and rebellion, or perhaps some combination.




The Archaic Period in Greece refers to the years between 776 and 480 BC, more particularly from 620 to 480 BC. The age is defined through the development of art at this time, specifically through the style of pottery and sculpture, showing the specific characteristics that would later be developed into the more naturalistic style of the Classical period. The Archaic is one of five periods that Ancient Greek history can be divided into; it was preceded by the Dark Ages and followed by the Classical period. The Archaic period saw advancements in political theory, especially the beginnings of democracy, as well as in culture and art. The knowledge and use of written language which was lost in the Dark Ages was re-established.




Classical period of ancient Greek history is fixed between about 500 BC, when the Greeks began to come into conflict with the kingdom of Persia to the east, and the death of the Macedonian king and conqueror Alexander the Great in 323 BC. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles; the building of the Parthenon on the Acropolis; the creation of the tragedies of Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides; and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato.


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ROMAN PERIOD (146 BC - 325 AD)

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TURKOCRACY (1453 AD - 1821 AD)

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GREECE (1821 AD - >>>>)


Independence Day, March 25th, 1821

A Dedication to MOTHER HELLAS

Click above - Modern History of Greece with a mourning song
Our Modern history is filled of sorrow and wail



Visit the forum: GREECE The land of Gods and Wisdom (Kaleidoscope)

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Georgios Paraskevopoulos

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3/1/2009 5:00:47 AM



3000-1000 BC

The earliest known prehistoric civilizations occupy the Aegean world. This period marks the rise and fall of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilization.


2200 BC

Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest forms of Greek, enter the mainland of Greece, and the Mycenaean civilization from 1600-1200 BC.


2000-1500 BC

Minoan civilization, named after the Cretan ruler Minos, reaches its height with its central power in Knossos on the island of Crete. This culture is apparently more female-oriented and peaceful than others at the time.


1400 BC

Mycenaean Civilization  replaces the Minoan civilization after the destruction of Knossos. Bronze weapons, war-scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls, and the fact that male warriors were buried with their weapons provide evidence for the claim that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse-drawn chariot emerges around this time. The Mycenaeans dominate the Aegean world for about 200 years.


1200 BC

Though this is disputed, some scholars believe that the Mycenaean wage war with the Trojans of western Asia Minor and are successful.


"Barbaric" Dorian invaders who are using iron weapons. From this point, Greek culture enters the so-called Dark Ages, characterized by the disappearance of writing and a decline in architecture and other aspects of material culture.

1100 BC - 800 BC THE DARK AGES

The period lasts until about 800 BC.


800 BC

The two Homeric epics, The Iliad and The Odyssey, are often used by scholars as evidence of the traditions and institutions in place during this time. However, such use is strongly contested.

Increase in trade and the establishment of governmental defense fortifications allows for the emergence of Greek city-states from tribal communities. These grow up around marketplaces and include Athens, Thebes and Megara on the Greek mainland. The Greek city-states are considered the most famous units of Greek political life to develop in this society.


800-500 BC

This period, often referred to as the Archaic period, marks the developments of literature and the arts, politics, philosophy and science. The Peloponnesian city of Corinth, Sparta and cities along the coast of the Aegean Sea flourish. For the most part, the Greek city-states are similar in their political evolution, with the exception of Sparta's elite dictatorship. Most begin their political histories as monarchies, evolve to oligarchies, are overthrown during the age of the tyrants 650-500 BC and eventually establish democracies in the sixth and fifth centuries. Of the Greek city-states, Athens and Sparta were the two most important.

776 BC

The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held for representatives of various city-stateof Ancient Greece. Earliest records indicate that they began in 776 BC in Olympia, Peloponnese, Greece. There are various legends regarding the origin of the Games. They were celebrated until 393 AD.

700 BC

Hesiod, Greece's second poet (after Homer) and the first poet to name himself, is composing his poetry. His most important works are The Theogony and Works and Days.


640 BC

Sparta's form of government, which is adapted from the Dorians, is heavily influenced by militarianism. The Messenian wars initiate Sparta's fear of change. They remain an isolated people, primarily by banning trade and discouraging travel outside of Spartan territory. Alcaeus, Greek lyric poet, is born in Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. His lyrics expound on contemporary politics, love, hymns to Apollo and Hermes, and include some drinking songs.


612 BC

Sappho, Greek lyric poet of Lesbos, is born. The most famous female poet of the ancient world, Sappho is inscribed in the Palatine Anthology among the Muses, rather than among the great lyric poets, in the second century BCE. Her lyric poetry includes the exploration of female sexuality, female values in a male dominated society, and love.


594 BC

Solon, the great elegiac poet, is appointed chief magistrate of Athens. His reforms include both political and economical adjustments which lead to dissatisfaction in the upper and lower classes.


585 BC

In Miletus, the founding city of philosophy, Thales predicts a total eclipse of the sun. The founder of the Melesian school, Thales, teaches that all things are composed of moisture; he is the first to put forth a rational explanation of the cosmos. By the end of the sixth century, philosophers begin to question the metaphysical nature of the cosmos with inquiries into the nature of being, the meaning of truth, and the relationship between the divine and the physical world.


546 BC

The first of the Athenian tyrants, Peisistratus, replaces Solon as ruler.


530 BC

Pythagoras and his followers found the city of Croton and combine philosophy and literature with political activity as the foundation of their community. Pythagoras, mathematician and philosopher, is credited with the Pythagorean theorem and the Pythagorean table of opposites (the "dualism" that underlies Greek thought).


525 BC

Greek drama grows out of the Dionysian festivals. The plays of Aeschylus are considered to be the beginning of this long history of tragic drama. His stories are drawn from conflicts between the individual and the cosmos.


518 BC

Pindar, considered by some to be the greatest Greek lyric poet, is born in Cynoscephalae, Boeotia. Pindar's odes celebrate games held at the religious festivals of Greece. Athletic victory serves as the ground for his poetic fancy and his religious, moral, and aesthetic insights. He dies in 438 BC


515 BC

Parmenides of Elea is born. He is the founder of the Eleatic school in the Phocaean colony in southern Italy. He is the first to focus attention on the central problem of Greek metaphysics: the nature of being. For Parmenides, the laws governing the universe are stable. Change is merely an illusion.


510 BC

Hippias, the son of Peisistratus, succeeds his father and is overthrown by a group of nobles with the help of Sparta.


508 BC

Cleisthenes, the father of Athenian democracy, rules Athens. His reforms grant full rights to all free men of Athens.


500 BC

The height of Greek sculpture begins with the work of Phidias. His masterpieces include the statue of Athena in the Parthenon, the Parthenon reliefs and the statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympian Zeus. The second most important sculptor, Myron, is renowned for his statue of the discus thrower.



The Greeks initiate war with Persia when Persia, at this time the strongest power in western Asia, establishes rule over Greek-speaking cities in Asia Minor. The Persian Wars are commonly regarded as among the most significant in all of history. Darius the Great is defeated at the battle of Marathon in 490 BC. The Greeks emerge victorious and put an end to the possibility of Persian despotism.

Click to enlarge
"We won" the battle of Marathon"

Painting of Pheidippides as he gave word of the Greek victory over Persia at the Battle of MArathon to the people of Athens.
Luc-Olivier Merson, 1869


486 BC

A contempoary of Darius the Persian, Heraclitus of Ephesus lives somewhere around this time. For Heraclitus, reality is flux which originated out of fire (as opposed to Parmenides' "stable" reality Plato credits Heraclitus for saying, "One cannot step into the same river twice." Heraclitus was also known as "the obscure."


485 BC

Accompanying the high point of democracy in Athens is a Greek intellectual revolution, with its beginnings in Sophism. The Sophists situate ethics and politics within philosophical discourse which, before, was limited to physics and metaphysics alone. The leading Sophist, Protagoras, states his famous doctrine: "Man is the measure of all things." For him, all truth, goodness, beauty, etc. are relative to man's necessities and inquiries. Emerging in opposition to the Sophists are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, each of whom offers alternatives to the Sophists' relativism.


484 BC

The father of history, Herodotus, is born. He is author of a nine-book History of the Persian Wars and a book dedicated to his travels through Egypt. He dies in 420 BC.


478 BC

Athens joins with other Greek city-states in the formation of the Delian League . The League continues even after the end of the Persian Wars and transforms into a naval empire with Athens as its leader.


469 BC

Sophocles is born. He is the second Greek dramatist, following Aeschylus, and is considered by some to be the greatest of the Greek dramatists. His works include Oedipus Rex and Antigone. He dies in 406 BC. This year also marks the birth of Socrates, a philosopher of ethics who leaves no written philosophy. He is the major critic of popular belief in Athens and is the protagonist of Plato's dialogues. He is condemned to death in 399 BC on the charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek thought.


461-429 BC

During this "Age of Pericles," Athenian democracy reaches perfection, and the court systems are completed. A jury system is put in place with the jury serving as absolute authority in judicial matters.


448 BC

Aristopahnes, considered by some to be the greatest Greek comedy writer, is born. He dies in 380 BC. Greek comedy, like Greek tragedy, originates out of the Dionysian festivals.


431-404 BC

During the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, the political supremacy of Athens is ended. Athenian trade is destroyed. Athenian democracy is overthrown, and Athens is forced to surrender to Sparta as a subject state. Sparta assumes dominance over the Greek world and replaces many Greek democracies with oligarchies. The two major causes of the war are Athens' growth in imperialism and the economic and cultural differences between Athens and Sparta. Between 404 and 338, Sparta is not able to persist in the rule of Greece. Power over Greece shifts from Sparta to Thebes and then to numerous other city-states, none able to maintain rule over such a large empire.


427 BC

Plato, Socrates' most distinguished student, is born. He is a prolific writer and is considered by some to be the most important of all philosophers. Among his most noted works are The Apology, The Symposium, The Phaedo, The Phaedrusand the Republic. His written works are in dialogue form. He dies in 347 BC.


406 BC

Euripides dies. Born in 480 BC, he is the last of the tragic dramatists. His contribution to the history of Greek tragedy is his creation of a drama that deals with situations analogous to human life.


384 BC

Plato's most distinguished student, Aristotle, is born. He enters Plato’s Academy at the age of seventeen. After spending several years as tutor to Alexander the Great, Aristotle returns to Athens and founds the Lyceum. Among his writings are treatises on logic, metaphysics, ethics, politics, rhetoric and several on natural sciences. He dies in 322 BC.


350 BC

Hellenistic Age witnesses the new philosophy of the Cynics. Their leader, Diogenes, puts forth the first argument against conventional life. The Cynics believe that people should live naturally and strive for self-sufficiency.


343 BC

The greatest dramatist of Helenistic Greece, Menander, follows the comedic genre put forth by Aristophanes (the subject of which is romantic love).


338 BC

Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great's father, conquers Greece and is succeeded by his son two years later. At age twenty-two, Alexander begins his campaign to acquire new territory in Asia. Within four years, Alexander conquers the entire Persian Empire (including Asia Minor, Egypt, Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia). Alexander continues his campaign farther east and eventually returns to Persia in 323 BC, where he dies of fever in Babylon. Before his death, Alexander was the ruler of the largest empire the world had seen. Hellenistic Greece, a combination of Greek and western Asian cultures, lasts from Alexander's time until the beginning of the Christian era.


323 BC

Alexander leaves no successors, and the highest generals engage in many wars which result in the decisive battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. The empire is divided into four major states under the separate rules of Seleucus, Lysimachus, Cassander and Ptolemy. Greek cities revolt against Macedonian rule but to no avail. The next four hundred years witness the growth of large cities and Hellenistic international trade.


300 BC

Epicureanism and Stoicism both originate in Athens. Both Epicurus (342-270) and Zeno, the Stoic (not to be confused with Zeno of Elea), believe in an individualistic and materialistic philosophy. Neither believe in spiritual substances. The soul is thought to be material. The Epicureans believe that pleasure is the highest good, and only by abandoning the fear of the supernatural can one achieve tranquillity of mind. The Stoics believe that tranquillity of mind is only achieved by surrendering the self to the order of the cosmos.


310 BC

Hellenistic astronomy is founded by Aristarchus of Samos. His major contribution to Hellenistic thought is his theory that the earth and all other planets revolve around the sun, contrary to Aristotle.


200 BC

Under the influence of Carneades, skepticism arises with doctrines closely tied to Sophism. They teach that because all knowledge is achieved through sense perception, nothing can be known for sure.


146-30 BC

Between these years, nearly all Hellenistic territory becomes subject to Roman rule.


To be updated

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Georgios Paraskevopoulos

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3/1/2009 5:01:02 AM
Greek Gods and Goddesses

The Primordial Gods were the first to emerge at Creation to form the Universe. The earth, the seas, the day, the night were all in this category. Although they were divine, they were elemental in form. They are sometimes known as the first born "Protogenoi" gods.

The Titan Gods, also known as the Elder Gods, ruled the Earth before the Olympian Gods overthrew them. They were responsible for the order of time and for establishing fixed heavenly cycles.

The Giants, or the earth-born "Gigantes" were oversized and frequently hideous men who were closely related to the gods. They include the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires.

The Olympian Gods are twelve in number who governed the Universe and commanded the lesser gods and spirits.

Sky Gods were in charge of the air, winds, breezes, dawn, day sunset, night, rainbows, even the seasons.

Sea Gods commanded the seas and all of their activity.

Earth Gods were in charge of the physical earth including its resources, agriculture, yield, and bounty.

River Gods, a.k.a. Potamoi, held dominion and responsibility for the rivers of the land.

Underworld Gods, led by Hades, were in charge of death, souls, ghosts, and torment.

Spirits were divided into groups each with different responsibilities. Some dealt with nature, others with the mind and body of humans, while yet others dealt with the celestial Constellations themselves.

Nymphs nourished life in the four Elements and controlled natural phenomena.

Beasts, Creatures, and Monsters include Dragons, Centaurs, Minotaurs, Sphinx, Griffins and the like. Additional, included in this category are the Unicorns, Pegasus, the Nemean Lion, Phoenix, and more.

Deified Mortals were those that, either through merit or because the gods took a liking to them, were elevated to immortality to live forever in the presence of the gods.

Mortals include those that achieved a notable role in their life realizing full well that all events were at the hand of the gods.

Heroes and Heroines include beings of great strength and courage that were celebrated for their bold exploits and were worshipped, after death, as minor divinities. Often they were the offspring of a mortal and a god.

Other includes those not readily classified in a specific category.

Aphrodite (love, beauty and lust)
Apollo (music, arts and the sun)
Ares (war, murder and bloodshed)
Artemis (hunt and the moon)
Athena (war, justice, skill, knowledge and wisdom)
Demeter (earth/nature and the harvest)
Dionysus (wine)
Hades (king of the underworld)
Hephaestus (fire, forge and smiths)
Hera (women, childbirth and marriage)
Hermes (flight, thieves, commerce, and travelers)
Hestia (hearth and home)
Hypnos (sleep)
Poseidon (sea)
Persephone (spring and flowers, queen of underworld)
Zeus (Ruler of the gods and human, sky and thunder)

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Georgios Paraskevopoulos

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3/1/2009 5:01:16 AM
Greece is LOVE. Greece is Spirit. Greece WAS, Greece it IS and it WILL BE.
Here a nice view f my country in a slideShow.

Click above

Photos of various archeological sites in Greece, from every part of the country. From 5500 BC, to 1st century AD.
1. Abdera, Thrace (4th century BC)
2. Acrocorinth, Corinth, Peloponnese (6th-3th century BC)
3. Acropolis of Athens aerial view
4. Acropolis of Athens, Erechthion detail with Caryatis (5th century BC)
5. Aegina island, temple of Afea (6th century BC)
6. Egosthena, classical fort, Attica (4th century BC)
7. Akrotiri at Santorini island, (destruction 1600BC)
8. Amphipolis wall, Macedonia (5th century BC)
9. Antikythira island mechanism (around 100BC)
10. Apollo temple at Vassai in Elis, Peloponnese (5th c.BC)
11. Argos, "Larissa" Acropolis in Argolid Peloponnese (from 6th c.BC)
12. Chaeronia Lion at Boeotia (4th c.BC)
13. Corinth, Temple of Apollo (7th c.BC)
14. Delos island, Cyclades General view
15. Delos Lions (5th c.BC)
16. Delphi, Tholos, Phocis (4th c.BC)
17. Delos island stoa (3rd c.BC)
18. Dimini Neolithic Citadel, Magnesia, Thessaly (6th Millennium BC)
19. Dion, Pieria, Macedonia mount Olympus visible (3rd-1st c.BC)
20. Dodoni Theater, Epirus (4th c.BC)
21. Dodona, Epirus, The Oracle
22. Drakospita of Karystos interior, Evia (Euboea) island, (6th c.BC)
23. Karystos Drakospito (Dragon House) exterior
24. Samos island, the Efpalinos tunnel (6th c.BC)
25. Eleusis,(ELEFSINA) Attica, The Telesterion (5th c.BC)
26. Epidaurus, Argolid, Peloponnese. Theatre (4th c.BC)
27. Erechthion, Acropolis of Athens (5th c.BC)
28. Faestos (Festos) Crete, Palace (1800 BC)
29. Temple of Hephestus ath Athens (5th c.BC)
30. Delphi, Kastalia holy spring, Phocis
31. Knossos, Crete, Palace stairway (1700-1570 BC)
32. Knossos fresco B (1600 BC)
33. Knossos Palace from the air
34. Kos island, Dodecannese. The Asklepion (2nd c.BC)
35. Lindos, Rhodes island, Dodecannese (4th c. BC)
36. Kea island, Cyclades, the Lion (6th c.BC)
37. Lycosoura city in Arcadia, Peloponnese (1st city in Greece)
38. Walls of Mycaene, Argolid, Peloponnese (15th c. BC)
39. Mycenae, The Lion Gate (15th c.BC)
40. Atreus Treasury interior in Mycenae (16th c.BC)
41. Atreus Treasury exterior.
42. Temple of Nike, Athens (5th c.BC)
43. Olympia, Elis, Peloponnese and the Entrance to Stadium (5th c.BC)
44. Olynthos, Chalkidike, Macedonia (4rd c.BC)
45. Kerkyra (Corfu) island, Palaiopolis (various periods)
46. The Parthenon of Athens Acropolis (mid 5th c. BC)
47. Pella, Central Macedonia, mosaic (3rd c. BC)
48. Philippoi, Eastern Macedonia (3rd & 2nd c. BC)
49. Dion, Pieria, Macedonia Theater (2nd century BC)
50. Ramnous, Attica, Temple of Nemessis (5th c.BC)
51. Rhodes island (4thc. BC)
52. Samos island Heraeum (Ireon) 6th c.BC)
53. Samothrace island, NorthEast Aegean sea, Temple of Great Gods (5th c.BC)
54. Stagira, Chalkidiki, Macedonia The Walls (4th c. BC)
55. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion (Sunium-5th c. BC)
56. Artemis temple at Vravron (5th c.BC)
57. Temple of Zeus at Athens (from 6th c. BC to 1st c. AD)
58. Thermon, Etoloakarnania (Aetolia), western Greece (around 1000 BC)
59. Thessaloniki, capital of Macedonia Ancient town (from 3rd c. BC)
60. Thessaloniki (Salonica) Macedonia, the Agora (Forum)
61. Thission, Athens Agora (5th to 2nd c. BC)
62. Tiryns, Argolid, the Gallery (1650 BC)
63. Tiryns, the walls
64. Vergina, Macedonia: The Tomb of Alexander I, King of Macedon (4th c. BC)

Kindly Regards!

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